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- Country :
- ICH Domain :
- Performing Arts
- Location :
- Fergana Valley, Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand, Khorezm and other regions
- Year of Designation :
Shashmaqam (means the six Maqams (modes)) is a Central Asian musical genre (typical of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) which firstly developed in Bukhara. Shashmaqom (in Farsi - "Six maqoms") is a leading musical-cyclic genre of musical heritage of Uzbek and Tajik people. It includes a cycle of complex and perfect instrumental as well as vocal compositions encompassing different types of melos, forms, usuls (rhythmic formulae) and performances. Shashmaqom is a cycle consisting of six maqoms, namely Buzruk, Rost, Navo, Dugoh, Segoh and Iroq. Each of these consists of two parts respectively, i.e. instrumental one (which is called "Mushkilot") and vocal one (which is called "Nasr"), representing more than 250 cycles of instrumental and vocal compositions in total. Shashmaqom got formed in urban environment, and its bearers of traditions were well-known musicians and singers. Its vocal part was performed in Uzbek and Tajik languages. The texts were mainly taken from the poems of classics of oriental poetry (i.e. Rudaki, Jami, Lutfi, Navoi, Babur, Khafiz, Fizuli, Amiri, Nodira, Zebuniso, Ogahiy and others) and were dedicated to love-related, lyrical, philosophical, didactic, religious themes. Folk poetry examples were also used. Most widely used musical instrument was tanbur. It is based on tuning tanbur that the tonal basis of maqoms emerged. Instrumental part of each maqom included instrumental compositions such as "Tasnif", "Tarje", "Gardun", "Mukhammas" and "Sakil", performed either solo or by instrumental ensemble. However, each part differed with its own tune, character of melody, structure and usuls of doira. Vocal parts are considered the most difficult and complete ones in terms of structure, melos and form and are divided into two cycles (shuba): the first one includes "Sarakhbor", "Talqin", "Nasr" and "Ufar", performed by leading singer - hofiz (their melodies are more developed, of great range and complex form). Between main parts "Tarona" was sung by vocal ensemble as a connecting one (it is a small vocal piece, which has its own tunes, feature and forms). The second cycle (shuba) includes five-part cycles "Moghulcha" and "Savt" (except maqom "Iroq"). In addition to main parts, each maqom incorporates additional compositions: instrumental one (naghma, peshrav, samoyi, hafif), and vocal one (uzzol, ushshoq, bayot, chorgoh, nasrullo, oraz, khusayniy, navrozi sabo, khoro and ajam), the creators of which were bastakors (creators of oral musical tradition). Shashmaqom got formed, has been preserved, mastered and transmitted from generation to generation verbally, based on "Ustoz-shogird" ("master-apprentice") method of learning.
Maqomat (maqom art) – is a phenomenon of spiritual culture of people of Central Asian region. Its artistic as well as historical value goes much beyond the borders of the region, and made an impact on the development of world musical processes. Shashmaqam was included in UNESCO’s List of Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity” (in the context of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) in 2003. In connection with the adoption of the Convention on the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2003, it was transformed into a new “Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity” in 2008. Shashmaqam (in Farsi - “Six maqoms”) is a leading musical-cyclic genre of musical heritage of Uzbek and Tajik people, which got formed in the ХVIII century on the basis of system of 12 maqams (or Duvazdakh maqam) and music traditions of Bukhara, which is considered one of the most ancient cultural centers of Central Asia. It has it's own performing traditions and sound system. It is being preserved as one of the highest examples of national professional music performance. Nowadays, Shashmaqam's songs and its singing are studied and performed by the professional maqom ensembles, as well as by amateur ensembles.
Transmission method :
Nowadays it is widely developing. The issues of studying Shashmaqom from the elementary musical education (from children’s music and art schools) to the higher education system are included in the educational program. Maqams have been traditionally orally transmitted from generation to generation, using the “master-apprentice” method. Apprentices are allowed to execute their performances independently only after they master the skills of the tradition and pass the exams.
National Maqam Centre, Institute of National Musical Art named after Yunus Rajabi, Uzbekistan National TV and Radio Company, Maqam ensembles
UNESCO LIST :
Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
Inscribed year in UNESCO List :